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  • how business leaders get political power in 19th托福听力原文翻译及问题答案

    时间:2023-07-07 14:08:46 来源:www.ivyeducation.cn

    how business leaders get political power in 19th托福听力原文翻译及问题答案

    一、how business leaders get political power in 19th 托福听力原文:

    NARRATOR: Listen to part of a lecture in an American history class.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR: We've been talking about the transformation... the industrialization of the United States economy in the nineteenth century. As the country shifted from an agricultural to an industrial base, political power shifted, too. Businesses became...a lot of power went, went, went, went from the government into, into the hands of business leaders.

    So, why did this happen? How did an elite group, a few business giants, how did they end up dominating, controlling a number of important national industries in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. How did they get to be so dominant? How did they figure out... how did they take advantage of the new industrialization of American society?

    Well consider the example of Andrew Carnegie and the steel industry.

    We've already discussed the development of a national network, a, a national system of railroads. Well, this growth created a tremendous demand for steel; a national railroad system needs a lot of railroad tracks, right? And Carnegie seized the opportunity. He built the world's most modern steel mill. And he came up with a system of business or-organization called vertical integration.

    Vertical integration just means that all... every single activity of a particular industry's processing is performed by a single company. In the case of the steel industry, this means the mining of iron ore, the transportation used to get ore from the mine to the mill, turning the ore into the steel, the manufacturing process, and sales. Carnegie controlled all of these; he practiced vertical integration on such a large scale that he practically owned the whole steel industry. This of course gave him a lot of political clout. Just a quick sketch, but you get the idea, right? Here’s another example—John D. Rockefeller.

    Rockefeller owned an oil refinery, but he wanted to expand his business. Since there was lots of competition in the industry, he thought the smart way to go about it would be to buy his competitors' businesses. But, at the time, it was illegal for one corporation to control another. So, what he did was, he created an organizational structure called a trust.  A trust is—oh, well, I don't have to go into that now.

    What matters is that a trust created a single, central management team, and that team directed the activities of what otherwise still appeared to be independent companies. This new, ah, legal entity worked so well that at one point, Rockefeller controlled 90 percent of the country's oil refineries, which again gave him lots of political power.

    So you've got two different approaches to expanding a business, and both were quite effective. Of course, these weren't the only two examples; a number of big businesses run by powerful individuals developed across, oh, a wide range of industries, like railroads, food processing, electricity but what they all had in common was... the government let them operate pretty much how they wanted to.

    So why did they do that? Why did the government keep such a low profile and allow individuals to gain so much control of the industries? Well, obviously, they had the wealth and the power to influence political leaders.

    But also, the truth is that these industry leaders made a significant contribution. Their investments in technologies led to the development of many new production techniques, which strengthened the economy. And, many of them gave lots of money to charity; Andrew Carnegie was particularly admired for his generosity.

    But there was one thing in particular that gave them power, and that's . . . they were beneficiaries, probably the biggest beneficiaries of, of, of, uh, a theory, a dominant political theory in the nineteenth century, something called laissez-faire doctrine. Laissez-faire roughly means “let it alone,” and that pretty much summarized the theory's philosophy. The idea was that government should leave business alone, allow it to operate unregulated. Legislatures weren't supposed to pass a lot of laws, or worry about regulating business practices. When people did challenge a company's business conduct, I mean, I mean in court cases, well, the few laws that did exist were usually interpreted in favor of business interests.

    But, over time, it started becoming increasingly obvious, and troubling to the public, that some of these big companies simply had too much control. There were criticisms that owners had too much opportunity to exploit workers, workers and consumers, because they could control prices and wages. And small business owners and small farmers couldn't compete.

    So there was bad press, bad publicity. Enough that the government eventually felt it had to do something. So it passed two key pieces of legislation. One law was designed to regulate the prices set by the railroads. Another made it illegal for trusts to be used to limit competition. Both were aimed squarely at reducing the exclusive control that existed in some industries.

    二、how business leaders get political power in 19th 托福听力中文翻译:







    洛克菲勒拥有一家炼油厂,但他想扩大业务。由于该行业竞争激烈,他认为明智的做法是收购竞争对手的业务。但是,在当时,一家公司控制另一家公司是非法的。所以,他所做的是,他创建了一个叫做信托的组织结构 信任是哦,好吧,我现在不必再谈这个了。








    三、how business leaders get political power in 19th 托福听力问题:

    Q1:1.What is the lecture mainly about?

    A. Ways that new managerial techniques hastened the industrialization of American society in the nineteenth century

    B. Ways that the United States government tried to regulate business practices in the nineteenth century

    C. Reasons that business leaders gained political power in the late nineteenth-century United States

    D. A comparison of the management styles of Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller

    Q2:2.Why does the professor discuss vertical integration?

    A. To explain how Andrew Carnegie gained control of the steel industry

    B. To describe the most typical organization for businesses in the nineteenth century

    C. To explain how John D. Rockefeller organized the oil industry

    D. To explain the origins of the business trust

    Q3:3.In what two ways did business leaders make a positive contribution to the United States in the nineteenth century? Click on 2 answers.

    A. They invested in new production technologies.

    B. They raised wage levels.

    C. They improved safety conditions.

    D. They supported charitable causes.

    Q4:4.According to the professor, what is the main reason that some businesses were able to become powerful during the nineteenth century?

    A. The government assisted businesses when they had financial difficulties.

    B. Taxation was based upon the profitability of a business.

    C. The government did not impose many regulations on businesses.

    D. Some government officials once held influential positions in large businesses.

    Q5:5.Why did the government pass new laws aimed at businesses?

    A. To correct mistakes made by the judicial system

    B. To respond to complaints from the public

    C. To increase employment rates

    D. To increase tax revenue from large industries

    Q6:6.What does the professor imply about the term “trust” when she says this:

    A. She should not have mentioned the term.

    B. It is unnecessary to explain the details of the term.

    C. She wants the students to explain the term to her later.

    D. She wants to discuss a different term.

    四、how business leaders get political power in 19th 托福听力答案:








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