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  • Hernani托福听力原文翻译及问题答案

    时间:2023-07-02 10:25:07 来源:www.ivyeducation.cn


    一、Hernani 托福听力原文:

    NARRATOR: Listen to part of a lecture in a literature class.

    MALE PROFESSOR: So, um, in France, you have the French Academy, which was created to uphold standards of literary taste. It was a very conservative organization. It tried to keep things a, a certain way… resist change.

    It dictated that French plays should be neoclassical in form. You know, have five acts, sophisticated language, et cetera. But try as it might, it couldn't stop change. French drama was changing, though the transition from neoclassical drama to romantic drama was itself pretty uh … dramatic.

    Let's look at a play by Victor Hugo called Hernani—or, as the French would say, Hernani.Although Hugo was a truly brilliant writer of…ah, essays, poems, novels and plays, uh, his play Hernani isn't a great play in and of itself. It's got a really confusing, convoluted storyline… critics back then were unimpressed by it, though it's likely that their own feelings about how plays should be—neoclassical or romantic—affected their opinions about it.

    But its premiere—in Paris, in 1830—was anything but ordinary. Hernani's opening night was probably one of the most important literary events in nineteenth-century France.

    What happened was… OK. Hugo was a romanticist, right? He was part of a growing movement of—of young authors, and artists, who were rebelling against neoclassicism—against the conventions of neoclassicism. And, and what this meant, is that Hugo opposed the neoclassical unities that French theater had inherited from Greek drama. These unities were basically the unity of time, space, and action, meaning that the entire play consisted of just one main event, that was unfolding in just one specific place, usually in the course of one day.

    And Hugo found this to be too constraining. He looked for inspiration in well…OK. Hugo is from the nineteenth century, but he looked to Shakespeare. Several centuries in the past—long before neoclassicism.

    For example, in Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream, the play moves from indoors to outdoors, from the city to the forest and back again. So there was a kind of mobility in, in the use of space and…Well, in A Midsummer Night's Dream, of course the action in that play takes place on a single summer's night. But, in Shakespeare’s other plays, in Hamlet, for example, ah, time elapses, people travel, they go to other destinations and the action is not limited to one plot.

    Hugo also opposed the neoclassical insistence on the separation of genres. For neoclassicists, a play could only be dramatic, and high art, or comic, light-hearted. And in either case, there was still a sense of decorum; characters might make jokes and get into silly situations, but they're still regular people, like not in disguise or anything. There-there's still a certain amount of restraint in a neoclassical comedy.

    Again, earlier works by Shakespeare provided very different models, that Hugo found more appealing. Many of Shakespeare's plays, even the tragedies, contain scenes with ridiculous, outlandish characters, like clowns, so that many of the plays have both… qualities: A serious, dramatic side, and comedic scenes with the clowns that break the drama.

    And Hugo, like other romantics, was also opposed to the artistic rules that the neo-classicists had inherited from the Enlightenment.The romantics wanted a more passionate kind of theater and it was more rooted in the individual and the individual sensibility.

    Romanticism was political as well—claiming that individuals, people, could govern themselves… without the need for kings and queens. There was an ideological struggle, between a lot of young people, artists— people who wanted change—and, and people who didn't. So, of course Romanticism was controversial.

    Now, Hernani was a play that incorporated these romantic conventions. Hugo suspected that neoclassical audiences would be hostile to this new form, and the ideas it represented. So to protect himself, he rounded up his friends for opening night. And hundreds of them came to the theater that night.

    And Hugo writes about this arrival of the romantics, these wild and bizarre characters and their outlandish costumes, which stupefied and infuriated the more conventional theater-goers. So, the play that night took forever to finish because it was interrupted many times and there were these debates in the audience between Hugo's friends and supporters, the romantics, and the neoclassicists, the supporters of the old school. Lots of interruptions.

    And afterward, what had been a debate inside the theater spilled out onto the street and there were fist fights… it was a complete free-for-all. And this went on for the next forty-five nights. Every night, ah, that the play was performed, there was this excitement and controversy that was, was really an expression of the kinds of passions that, ah, differences of aesthetics and political opinions, and tastes could give rise to.

    二、Hernani 托福听力中文翻译:
















    三、Hernani 托福听力问题:

    Q1:1.What is the lecture mainly about?

    A. The influence of Hernani on later French plays

    B. The way that Hernani challenged traditional guidelines for plays

    C. The influence of Shakespeare on Victor Hugo's plays

    D. The changing attitudes toward Victor Hugo's plays in the nineteenth century

    Q2:2.What is the professor's opinion of the play Hernani?

    A. It is too political.

    B. It is not very creative.

    C. It is not an artistic success.

    D. It has been unjustly ignored.

    Q3:3.What feature of A Midsummer Night's Dream is NOT consistent with neoclassical principles?

    A. It has several main characters.

    B. It uses sophisticated language.

    C. It takes place in more than one location.

    D. It takes place during a single night.

    Q4:4.Why does the professor mention clowns in plays by Shakespeare?

    A. To point out that Shakespeare rebelled against neoclassicism

    B. To reinforce the idea that neoclassical plays were sometimes comical

    C. To introduce an aspect of Hernani that French critics objected to

    D. To illustrate a characteristic of the plays that influenced Hugo

    Q5:5.Why did Hugo invite his friends to the opening of Hernani?

    A. To include people in the audience who understand his goals

    B. To introduce them to a new and different kind of play

    C. To try maintain a pleasant, comfortable atmosphere in the theater

    D. To thank them for supporting his efforts as a playwright

    Q6:6.What does the professor imply about the fights that occurred after performances of Hernani? [Click on 2 answers.]

    A. They were partly due to a misunderstanding of Hugo's opinions.

    B. They affected a general social conflict in France at the time.

    C. They occurred because of deeply held literary opinions.

    D. They prevented other writer from writing romantic plays.

    四、Hernani 托福听力答案:











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