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  • 托福tpo50听力lecture3 American Realism

    时间:2023-07-10 09:34:49 来源:www.ivyeducation.cn

    托福tpo50听力lecture3 American Realism,接下来就跟着常春藤的小编详细了解一下吧。

    American Realism托福听力原文翻译及问题答案

    一、American Realism托福听力原文:

    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a United States literature class.The professor is discussing realism.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Ok,everyone,in our last class we finished up Romanticism,right? So now let’s look at something completely different.Realism as a literary technique was most popular in U.S.literature from around 1860 till 1890.So it started pretty much around the time of the Civil War.And I think you'll see right away how it's different from Romanticism,or any other kind of literature.It has a very specific point that makes it unique,and that is that it shows people as they are,and gets you to look at them,and also,you know,the things that need to be changed in a society.And it does it without being sentimental,not in that sort of overly emotional way,the way that Romantic literature can.Realism tells it like it is.

    Let's look at society as a whole.In the late 1800s,people were interested in the scientific method,as well as rational philosophy—which,uh,says that people can discover the truth by using reason and factual analysis. So,reason and facts,OK.And at the same time that realism was becoming popular there were a lot of political and socioeconomic changes happening in the country.There was,uh,increased literacy,plus the growth of industrialism and urbanization,growth in population from immigration,and a rise in middle-class affluence.All these factors,combined with the importance of reason and facts,meant that readers were interested in really having a good understanding of all these uh,changes,the changes going on in society.A scholar named Amy Kaplan says,and I'm just paraphrasing here,that realism is a way to understand and deal with social change.Which makes a lot of sense,I think.So,then,let’s take a closer look at the tricks of the trade,at how realist writers did their work.For one thing,as we said,they focus on—big surprise—reality.And in great detail.They aim for verisimilitude—should I write that on the board?


    MALE PROFESSOR:Ok.Verisimilitude means,basically,to seem true or real.Like,say,a photograph,rather than a painting,in a way.In fact,that's a good analogy.You see,writers tried to capture a moment in time,and all its basic facts,but without exaggeration,just like a camera does.

    Anyway,the events,the things that happen in realist literature,are usually pretty much plausible,I mean,you figure they could probably happen to anyone.And the characters are believable too, and actually,they're usually even more important than the plot.They're also uh…they talk the way that real people talk,authentic speaking styles from different regions…different parts of the country were captured in the text.Does that make sense?…OK.

    So,besides verisimilitude,another important characteristic of realism is the narrator's objectivity.Characters and events are described without the narrator's passing much judgment on them or anything,or being too dramatic.Basically,you're reading a story without too much extra comment from the narrator.OK.Now,we have an idea of what realism was.So,who were the players?Well,two important realist novelists were Rebecca Harding Davis and Mark Twain.We’ll talk more about other realists tomorrow,but for today let's just start by looking briefly at these two.

    Rebecca Harding Davis was an author and journalist who,like other realists,was concerned about all those social changes going on.She wrote mainly about some marginalized groups of the time,like women,Native Americans,uh,immigrants.Now,her best-known book is a novella called Life in the Iron Mills.It's really a key text because it's one of the original realist works.Her works overall have been pretty much ignored for a long time,but some critics and scholars are starting to revisit them and study them more seriously,probably more for the historical aspects of the works,and...and I think that’s great.

    But if we're talking about great literature,literature that's read and enjoyed today...as something more than just a way of looking at that era,the era when it was written,well,a favorite of mine is Mark Twain.I'm sure you've read or heard of his most famous book,The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.And Twain's style…it goes back to what I said earlier,verisimilitude,the realistic way characters act and talk.You should realize too that this was quite a contrast to earlier writers in the U.S.who tried to emulate British writers,tried to be very elegant—at the expense of realism.Y'know,a lot of critics will tell you that American literature began with that book—The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.

    二、American Realism托福听力中文翻译:


    男教授:好的,大家好,在上一节课上,我们完成了浪漫主义,对吧 现在让我们来看一些完全不同的东西。写实主义作为一种文学技巧,在1860年至1890年间最受美国文学的欢迎。因此,它几乎开始于南北战争时期。我想你会马上看到它与浪漫主义或任何其他类型的文学有什么不同。它有一个非常具体的点,这使它独一无二,那就是它展示了人们的现状,让你看到他们,以及,你知道的,社会中需要改变的事情。它做到了不伤感,而不是以浪漫主义文学所能做到的那种过度情绪化的方式。现实主义告诉我们事实。

    让我们看看整个社会。在19世纪末,人们对科学方法以及理性哲学感兴趣,理性哲学说人们可以通过理性和事实分析来发现真相 所以,理性和事实,好吧。在现实主义变得流行的同时,这个国家发生了许多政治和社会经济变化。有,呃,识字率提高,加上工业化和城市化的发展,移民带来的人口增长,中产阶级的富裕程度提高。所有这些因素,加上理性和事实的重要性,意味着读者有兴趣真正了解所有这些呃,变化,社会正在发生的变化。一位名叫艾米·卡普兰(Amy Kaplan)的学者说,我只是在这里转述一下,现实主义是理解和处理社会变化的一种方式。我认为这很有道理。那么,让我们来仔细看看这个行业的技巧,看看现实主义作家是如何完成他们的工作的。首先,正如我们所说,他们关注的是——令人惊讶的现实。而且非常详细。他们的目标是逼真——我应该把它写在黑板上吗?





    丽贝卡·哈丁·戴维斯(Rebecca Harding Davis)是一位作家和记者,和其他现实主义者一样,她关注着正在发生的所有社会变化。她主要写一些当时处于边缘地位的群体,比如女性、美国原住民、移民。现在,她最著名的书是一部中篇小说《铁厂生活》。这真的是一个关键的文本,因为它是原创现实主义作品之一。很长一段时间以来,她的作品一直被忽视,但一些评论家和学者开始重新审视这些作品,并对其进行更认真的研究,可能更多的是为了作品的历史方面,而且……我认为这很好。


    三、American Realism托福听力问题:

    Q1:1.What is the main purpose of the lecture?

    A.To highlight realism's causes and characteristics

    B.To explore plot and character development in realist literature

    C.To examine realism's contribution to social change

    D.To show how two realist authors influenced literature in the United States

    Q2:2.Why does the professor mention the scientific method and rational philosophy?

    A.To give examples of subjects commonly chosen by realist authors

    B.To provide context for his discussion of realist authors

    C.To explain how the realist style had an effect in areas unrelated to literature

    D.To highlight changes in society that realist authors opposed

    Q3:3.According to the professor,what are three characteristics of realist literature?[Click on 3 answers.]

    A.Sentimental plot structure

    B.Concern for social change

    C.Well-developed characters

    D.Use of a narrator to complicate the plot

    E.Use of regional speaking styles

    Q4:4.According to the professor,what makes Life in the Iron Mills by Rebecca Harding Davis notable?

    A.It is unlike her other works.

    B.It led to many changes throughout society.

    C.It was one of the first examples of realist literature.

    D.It influenced the more famous works of Mark Twain.

    Q5:5.What is the professor's opinion of the writing of Rebecca Harding Davis?

    A.It is similar in quality to Mark Twain’s writing.

    B.It provides valuable insight about the time period.

    C.It was not successful in bringing about the changes it advocated.

    D.Davis'style was not as realistic as Twain's.

    Q6:6.What does the professor imply about literature in the United States prior to The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn?

    A.It did not yet have a distinct American style.

    B.Very few books were published.

    C.Romanticism and realism had started to combine.

    D.British authors were using realism more than American authors were.

    四、American Realism托福听力答案:








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